Unless I'm missing it (and, if I am, some moderator-type should feel free to move my comment there), the good folks at Captain Comic's have avoided the firestorm that has hit certain places because Michael B.Jordan has been cast as Johnny Storm in the forthcoming FF film. I'm fine with the choice-- the movies are their own entity-- but I'm annoyed that they've stated Sue and Johnny will not be siblings. I think that decision removes an essential part of the FF's squabbling family dynamic.
In modern US comics, Suicide Squad perhaps.
European characters include Diabolik and Satanik.
I think Marvel's Dracula counts as a villain.
I don't know as Suicide Squad counts, as they were co-opted to do allegedly good things, but I didn't read much of it.
Dracula probably counts in some fashion, although he wasn't up against super-heroes (unless we count Blade). But I suppose his situation can be adapted to Doctor Doom if not the others. Doc's first series didn't last long, though, and it had exceptional art.
I think the concept of Doctor Doom getting some kind of powers at the same time as the FF was an Ultimate Universe thing, like the movie version of Nick Fury. The Nick Fury things works, but I think they need Doctor Doom to be what he originally was: a man who tried to combine science and magic, and only later took over a small country.
I think the movies like the notion of Doom getting his powers at the same time as the Fantastic Four members because it simplifies the storytelling and keeps them from eating up screen time with a wholly separate origin. But they've gotten bad results two times out -- or is it three times? I never saw the Roger Corman Fantastic Four, so I don't know how that movie dealt with Doom's origin.
I agree, Doom needs to be Doom, someone who wields magic as a contrast to the FF's science.