As with part two, each question this time has at least two answers:

Edit: The above line is mostly true, but it isn't correct for Q.30. Except one could count that character as two or even three characters!

21.What villains who first appeared as JLA opponents became recurring enemies of non-Leaguers?

22.What opponents who fought the team in Justice League of America, other than Golden Age characters, first appeared neither in the JLA’s feature nor a member’s feature?

23.What JLA opponents, other than Golden Age characters, originated on Earth Two?

24.What JLA opponents originated on Earth Prime?

25.What JLA opponents, other than members of the team who fought the rest for whatever reason, starred at some point in our period in their own features?

26.What JLA opponents got the team put on trial?

27.What JLA opponents fought the League using more than one costumed identity, not counting impersonations of other characters?

28.What Batman villains appeared as leading plotters in JLA stories (as opposed to in side-sequences, or in stories featuring an ensemble of supervillains)?

29.In what Justice League of America stories did members of the team have to fight opponents powered or created by Green Lantern’s ring?

30.What character who first appeared as a villain and more than once fought the JLA joined, in our period, two superhero teams?

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Philip Portelli said:

However in Limited Collectors' Edition # C-46 (S'76), there's a two-page pin-up of the JLA by Terry Austin & Dick Giordano which sadly I can't show that not only includes the Phantom Stranger but Metamorpho, Zatanna and...Adam Strange!

I'm delighted that I was able to find the two-page pin-up on Google. Here it is:

Showing up when he is needed is one of the main traits of the Phantom Stranger's style.  Giving him a signaling device would run counter to the character concept. 

Somehow I can almost see the panel of some random JLAer giving the device to him while asking him to "not be a Stranger".  Does that count as threatening his traditional way of life?

To be fair, making him a regular JLA member would also run against the grain of both the team and the character, since that would in practice create the need for having him have the JLA make background cameos ocasionally and himself being a part of such cameos in other titles.  Can we say tonal clash?  We sure can.

On the other hand, if could be interesting to have Major Disaster, Libra, Lex Luthor or Darkseid recruit Tala or Tannarak to be the Phantom Stranger's counterpart in some incarnation of the Injustice Gang or of the Secret Society of Supervillains.  But I fear that ultimately it would not be worth the trouble.

As for Adam Strange, he probably can't be considered a reserve member at all.  But he was certainly a frequently featured non-member, to the point of marrying in #120 instead of in his own feature elsewhere.  And he was mentioned for consideration as a potential new member _very_ early on.  More significantly, the JLA (as a group) was among the very few, very rare heroes with features of their own to actually be guest heroes in Adam's.

It is fair to say that he was not a member,  But we sort of have to assume that many JLAers, particularly Hawkman, thought of him as being in a state of "almost membership", even if only unconsciously and out of sheer familiarity.

Strange as it seems (no pun intended), Adam Strange was the first person to be suggested by a JLA member to be a new member.  On page 5 of issue #4, Wonder Woman, as rotating chairman, asks for suggestions for a new member.  Flash speaks up first, “How about Adam Strange?  He’s achieved an excellent record!”

GL then suggests Green Arrow (so I guess their connection goes way back), and then Batman suggests Hawkman.

Of course, GA ends up joining that issue.

Come to think of it, two Leaguers had met GA previously: Superman when he was Superboy, in Adventure Comics #258; and Aquaman in the Green Arrow/Aquaman crossover in Adventure Comics #267.

Flash nominating Adam was a problem as no one was supposed to know about his adventures on Rann so Mystery In Space #75 (My'62) was produced to explain it. The story was essentially a flashback that took place between Justice League of America #3 (Ma'61) and #4 (My'61) and the Flash does indeed get the idea to nominate Adam for JLA membership.

It's a neat link for these Infantino-drawn heroes though Flash might have been a bit jealous that Adam was better inked!

While Adam had no official status with the JLA, he certainly earned one!

Dave Palmer said:

Strange as it seems (no pun intended), Adam Strange was the first person to be suggested by a JLA member to be a new member.  On page 5 of issue #4, Wonder Woman, as rotating chairman, asks for suggestions for a new member.  Flash speaks up first, “How about Adam Strange?  He’s achieved an excellent record!”

GL then suggests Green Arrow (so I guess their connection goes way back), and then Batman suggests Hawkman.

Of course, GA ends up joining that issue.

Here are the answers. Some of the entries are long, so I've left them in three posts:

 

21.What villains who first appeared as JLA opponents became recurring enemies of non-Leaguers?

 

Dr Light became a recurring enemy of the Teen Titans. He fought the original team in Teen Titans #44, the first issue of the title’s 1970s revival, and the new Teen Titans as part of the Fearsome Five (which he organised, but Psimon took over).

 

The other case I had in mind was Kanjar Ro, who first fought Adam Strange in Mystery in Space #75 - the JLA guested, but Adam defeated him - and was afterwards mostly paired with him. But Dave has a point: none of those other stories were solo Adam Strange stories! The majority of their return engagements were in Justice League of America, in #24, #120-#121, and #138-#139; and Adam guested, and Kanjar Ro was the main villain, in the Hawkman try-out in Showcase #101-#103. I had an idea the villain appeared in Adam's back-up series in Green Lantern, but DCU Guide indicates that's wrong.

 

I think Kanjar Ro is a fair answer, though, as he targeted Adam for revenge in Justice League of America #120-#121 and #138-#139, Adam was mainly responsible for his defeat in both stories, and for part of both stories worked alone. (In Showcase #103 the villain’s defeat was ultimately the work of Hawkman.)

 

Luis and Peter both caught Dr Light. Dave caught Kanjar Ro.

I'm disallowing Luis's second suggestion, Hector Hammond, as evolved Hammond was supposed to be the same man. Incidentally, those who've not seen the JLA story may not know that Hammond's paralysis, afterwards his signature trait, was only introduced in his third story, in Green Lantern #22.

My thanks to Commander Benson for his clarification of Adam's status.

22.What opponents who fought the team in Justice League of America, other than Golden Age characters, first appeared neither in the JLA’s feature nor a member’s feature?

 

The Tornado Tyrant/Tornado Champion/Red Tornado, as he fought the League in Justice League of America #17 and #193 and Justice League of America Annual #3, and first appeared in Adam Strange’s feature in Mystery in Space #61;

the Sensei, as he dispatched Merlyn on his assassination mission in Justice League of America #94, and first appeared in Deadman’s feature in Strange Adventures #215;

Eclipso, as he fought the League in Justice League of America #109, and first appeared in the first instament of his own feature in House of Secrets #61;

Adam Strange, as he fought the League in a deranged state in Justice League of America #138 (the story continued the next issue, but Adam was not deranged there), and first appeared in Showcase #17;

Mordru, as he fought the JLA and JSA in Justice League of America #147-#148, and first appeared in the Legion’s feature in Adventure Comics #369;

Manhunter/the Privateer/the Star-Tsar, old Manhunter, and Grandmaster, as they fought the League in Justice League of America #140-#141, and first appeared in 1st Issue Special #5;(1)

The Viking Prince,(2) Miss Liberty, Enemy Ace and Jonah Hex, as they fought the League in Justice League of America #159,(3) and first appeared in The Brave and the Bold #1, Tomahawk #81, Our Army at War #151 and All-Star Western #10 respectively;

Star Sapphire of the Secret Society of Super-Villains, as she was one of the SSoSVers in the body-swap story in Justice League of America #166-#168, and first appeared in Secret Society of Super-Villains #1;(4)

Darkseid and Granny Goodness, as they fought the JLA and JSA in Justice League of America #183-#185 and first appeared in Jimmy Olsen #134 and Mister Miracle #2 respectively;

Proteus, from Justice League of America #187-#188, as he's a recurring Creeper villain who first appeared in Beware the Creeper #2 (this was news to me, but Proteus declares himself the same man in #187);

the Psycho-Pirate, as he appeared as part of the Ultra-Humanite’s SSoSV in Justice League of America #195-#197, and first appeared in the Dr Fate/Hourman story in Showcase #56;

Daanuth from Justice League of America #217, as he’s apparently supposed to be Garn Daanuth, who first appeared in Arion’s feature in Warlord #59 (I don't know I've encountered him before);

and Commander Steel, Mekanique and Infinity Inc., as they fought the JLA in the JLA/JSA crossover in Infinity Inc. 19/Justice League of America #244, and first appeared in Steel the Indestructible Man #1, Infinity Inc. 19, and Infinity Inc. #1 respectively.

 

Several Leaguers fought Black Lightning in disguise in Justice League of America #173 as an initiation test, but I don’t know one could call him a JLA opponent.

Luis caught the Tornado Tyrant and Eclipso. Peter caught the Tornado Tyrant and Mordru. As far as I know Ulthoon was only an illusion, a projection of the Tornado Tyrant.

 

(1) Kirby intended old Manhunter to be the Golden Age Manhunter. (I missed this, and owe the point to the net.) His first appearance was Adventure Comics #73 or #58, depending how one looks at it. But the Golden Age Manhunter had already returned as the hero of the Goodwin/Simonson series in Detective Comics. In the JLA story Batman asks about his relationship to the Manhunters and is told he failed to win his baton.

(2) I’ve counted the Viking Prince on the grounds that he can be fairly reckoned a post-Golden Ager: The Brave and the Bold #1, being a 1955 issue, post-dates both the great post-war die-off of superhero features and the coming of the Comics Code.

(3) The heroes also appeared in #160, but didn’t fight the Leaguers and JSAers there.

(4) It was made clear she wasn’t Carol Ferris, but her true identity was not established in-story. Bob Rozakis intended to reveal she was an alien named Remoni-Notra, but the story didn’t appear due to Secret Society of Super-Villain’s cancellation. More here, including a transcription of a letters column account of Rozakis’s plans.

23.What JLA opponents, other than Golden Age characters, originated on Earth Two?

The Earth Two black sphere villains from Justice League of America #55-#56 - Gem Girl, How Chu, Money Master and the Smashing Sportsman;

Aquarius in Justice League of America #73-#74, since despite the Earthocentrism of the "Earth One", "Earth Two" designations the terms refer to whole universes;

the Hand That Held the Earth(5) in Justice League of America #100-#102, but not Iron Hand, as he was the Hand, the Seven Soldiers of Victory's opponent from Leading Comics #1;

the Spirit King in Justice League of America #171-#172, since although he was Mr Terrific's old enemy, he was created for that story;

and Commander Steel, Mekanique and Infinity Inc., as they fought the Detroit JLA in the crossover in Infinity Inc. #19/Justice League of America #244.

Luis caught Aquarius, Commander Steel, Mekanique, and Infinity Inc. Peter caught Aquarius, Gem Girl, How Chu, Money Master and the Smashing Sportman.

(5) I've counted the giant hand as an entity because it was made of the same energy as the Nebula-Man and I'd count it. The Earth the giant hand held was Earth Two.

 

24.What JLA opponents originated on Earth Prime?

Cary Bates, as the Injustice Society turned him into a supervillain in Justice League of America #123-#124;

Ultraa, who debuted in #153 and fought the League in #158 and #201 (and testified against them in the story in #169-#170: see below);

and Maxitron, the deranged persona and memory bank of the computer from his people's destroyed space ark, fought by Ultraa and the Leaguers in #153.

Luis caught Ultraa. Peter caught Cary Bates and Ultraa. (I thought everyone would miss Cary Bates!)  Philip caught Maxitron.

 

25.What JLA opponents, other than members of the team who fought the rest for whatever reason, starred at some point in our period in their own features?

Lex Luthor, as he fought the League, along with others, in Justice League of America#61 and starred in the feature "The Secret Life of Lex Luthor" in Action Comics #486;

the Joker, as he schemed to discredit the League in Justice League of America #77 and starred in his own title, The Joker, in the mid-70s;

the Crimson Avenger, arguably, as he fought the heroes who came to rescue him in Justice League of America #100, and starred in the instalment of the Adventure Comics Seven Soldiers of Victory serial in #440 and the instalment of the "Whatever Happened to..." feature in DC Comics Presents #38;

the Shining Knight, arguably, as he fought the heroes who came to rescue him in Justice League of America #101, and starred in an instalment of that SSoV serial in Adventure Comics #438;

the Speedy of Earth Two, arguably, as he fought his would-be rescuers in Justice League of America #102, and co-starred with Green Arrow - with logo-billing - in the instalment of that SSoSV serial in Adventure Comics #439;

Eclipso - in addition to his original series from House of Secrets, he starred in a two-parter in Adventure Comics #457-#458;

Adam Strange (since I counted him as a JLA opponent in my answer to Q.22);

Manhunter/the Privateer/the Star-Tsar, since he debuted as Manhunter in 1st Issue Special #5;

the Black Pirate, arguably, as he starred in the installment of the "Whatever Happened to..." feature in DC Comics Presents #48;

Enemy Ace;

Jonah Hex;

the Viking Prince, as his feature in The Brave and the Bold ran until #24 in 1959, which falls within the limits of the Silver Age as commonly understood;(6)

the Secret Society of Super-Villains, in their own title and DC Special Series #6;(7)

Commander Steel, as he first appeared in his own series, Steel the Indestructible Man;

and Infinity Inc.

Johnny Thunder's Thunderbolt gets an honorable mention. He was twice turned against the JLA and JSA by the Earth One Johnny Thunder, and appeared with Johnny in Johnny's instalment of the "Shanghaied into Hyperspace" serial, in All-Star Squadron #58. But although he was Johnny's co-star, he wasn't co-billed.

Luis caught the Joker and the Secret Society of Super-Villains (and but for him I would have forgotten the SSoSV). Peter caught the Joker, Jonah Hex and Enemy Ace (and but for him I would not have thought of the last two or the Black Pirate and the Viking Prince).

(6) But the issue does, of course, predate the JLA's first appearance, in The Brave and the Bold #28.

(7) One might quibble over whether Ultra-Humanite's SSoSV from Justice League of America #195-#197 was the same, but the #166-#168 story was written as a sequel to the Secret Society of Super-Villains series, explained how its final story ended, and used the group's final line-up.

26.What JLA opponents got the team put on trial?

 

Dr Destiny in Justice League of America #19, where the Leaguers appear before a US court because of the crimes committed by their doubles;(8) and the Over-Complex and Ultraa, who got the JLA tried by the U.N. for illegally imprisoning Ultraa in #169-#170.

 

Since Ultraa was imprisoned in Nova Scotia one might have expected the trial to have been before a Canadian court. But it’s also the U.N. that issues an “injunction” against the Leaguers using their powers in #28. The account of the JLA's by-laws in Amazing World of DC Comics #14 represented it as incorporated in the U.S. but operating under a United Nations agreement, which might explain these legal oddities.

In #28 the injunction is apparently issued without a trial at which the League has representation: it's Snapper who inform the Leaguers. But later Batman, speaking for the League, addresses a U.N. assembly asking for its revocation. That hearing might be considered a trial, the more so if the U.N. has legal authority over the JLA. So I think it counts.

 

I belatedly noticed my wording didn't exclude trials before alien courts or juries of villains. I can’t think of any, but I haven’t checked (or read) every issue.

Don't ask me why the JLA chose to imprison Ultraa in Nova Scotia. The climax of his previous appearance, #158, took place at their original Secret Sanctuary.

Luis caught Ultraa. Peter caught Dr Destiny and Headmaster Mind.

(8) Note that “Sloane” calls Ultraa his client in both #167 and #168, before they’ve talked. Apparently the Over-Complex was already planning the trial at that point.

 

27.What JLA opponents fought the League using more than one costumed identity, not counting impersonations of other characters?

Mark Shaw fought the League as Manhunter in Justice League of America #140-#141 and the Privateer and Star-Tsar in #149-#150. He also appeared as the Privateer in #143, but didn't fight the League there.

Amos Fortune fought the League as the Ace of Clubs of the Royal Flush Gang in #43 and also used the identity of Serpent Man when the Gang returned in #54. He also fought the League as Mr Memory in #14. I believe he didn't use the costume there - only his mind-controlled agent did - but you could argue that still counts as fighting the League using a costumed identity...

The other Flushers also used other identities in #54, but two of these (Alexander the Great and Queen Elizabeth) represented real people, and a third (Sir Launcelot) a supposed real person, so I'm counting them as impersonations. The fourth, the Ten of Club's Judge Duffy, is explained in the issue as deriving from the poker term, but apparently there's a legend that the term refers to a real judge, so that case could be accounted an impersonation too.

As far as I can tell Al Desmond only fought the League as Dr Alchemy.

Jack only used the Hi-Jack name in Secret Society of Supervillains. He's called Hijack in Justice League of America #167, but there he's in prison.

Since I didn't think to exclude other Leaguers, one could say Batman, as he fought the League under Fortune's control as Mr Memory in #14 and in deranged states as Batman in #87 and #202.

Luis caught Manhunter/the Privateer/Star-Tsar. Peter caught Amos Fortune. I didn't make naming the identities a requirement, so whether Mr Memory counts as a costumed identity for Fortune is moot.

 

28.What Batman villains appeared as leading plotters in JLA stories (as opposed to in side-sequences, or in stories featuring an ensemble of supervillains)?

 

The Joker, in Justice League of America #77, and Two-Face, in #126.

 

As Peter noted, in #125 Two-Face aids the League. But as Philip caught, in #126 the coin-toss goes the other way and he aids the Qwardians and Dronndarians.

 

Peter caught the Joker. Philip caught Two-Face.

 

29.In what Justice League of America stories did members of the team have to fight opponents powered or created by Green Lantern’s ring?

In Justice League of America #36 the League entertains some handicapped boys. GL changes Batman into a monster and he and the other Leaguers fight.

In #52 Snapper explains what the no-show Leaguers were doing during the events of #50. GL's part of the story begins with his discovery of an evil force around his battery. When he traces it he's led to a farm dog turned giant and vicious by ringpower, which gets even bigger when he tries to zap it. After he solves this his story connects with Hawkman's and the Martian Manhunter's. Hawkman and Hawkgirl had attempted to capture Faceless, the leader of Vulture. At the time the Martian Manhunter regularly fought Vulture in his own feature. Hawkman subdued his opponent, only to discover it wasn't Faceless but the Martian Manhunter in an amnesiac state. Faceless had used a powerful force to subdue him which the heroes figure out was powered by tapping GL's battery. The distinction between GL's battery and ring didn't occur to me when I wrote the question, but the dog, at least, gains strength from GL's ring, when he zaps it. 

In #127 the villain, the Anarchist, has somehow figured out how to tap GL's ring. GL becomes aware of this because he's been compelling him to recharge it while he's asleep, to make sure the power keeps coming.

In #166-#168 members of the Secret Society of Super-Villains swap bodies with Leaguers. Professor Zoom gets GL's body and ring.

However, not the Warlock of Ys in #161, as by the time the League fight him the ring’s power has run out.(9)

Arguably, any Amazo story counts: he has his own ring, but where else does his ring-energy come from if not GL's? The android first appeared in The Brave and the Bold #30. Libra stole half the powers from each of the Leaguers in #111, and at one point zapped GL with ringpower.

(9) In #161 it’s a plot point that the Warlock doesn’t know the ring has to be recharged until he learns this from the JLA computer. May we take it Professor Zoom knew? Perhaps it’s common knowledge in his time.

Were the Guardians aware of what had happened to GL, either time? Also, how did the Anarchist know? (My theory: he was an alien.)

 

30.What character who first appeared as a villain and more than once fought the JLA joined, in our period, two superhero teams?

 

The Tornado Tyrant/Tornado Champion/Red Tornado, but only from the standpoint of the retcon in Justice League of America #193, as in the Red Tornado’s real first appearance, from #64, he wasn’t a villain despite T. O. Morrow’s role in his creation.

 

The two teams he joined, of course, were the JSA and JLA. From the standpoint of continuity at the time of Crisis on Infinite Earths #10, where the old DCU ended, the Red Tornado had been the JSA’s only Earth One member, the younger Black Canary was the JLA’s only Earth Two member, only the Tornado had been a member of both teams, and he was now an enemy.

Luis caught this one.

My thanks, once again, to everyone who read and participated.

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